UN-Habitat’s New Report on Sustainable Mobility: Lessons for Nairobi


Published on October 10, 2013 by Jacqueline M. Klopp

This year’s UN-Habitat Global Human Settlement Report is on a topic of much debate and interest to Nairobi’s inhabitants: Planning and Design for Sustainable Mobility. The report argues strongly for cities where crucial services are available for all. Accessibility is key. This is in contrast to the idea of mobility or simply increasing ability to move, which often tends to create a narrow focus on congestion and traffic. Accessibility captures the reality that many people would rather not be forced to move to access services and employment. By better planning that puts more important services like good schools and clinics as well as small, non polluting businesses in high density and improved neighborhoods, you can reduce the need to travel and sit in traffic. This not only saves time: with thoughtful design and planning, a focus on access can lead to cities that are more livable and safe.

Overall, the UN-Habitat report provides many ideas for solid interventions that cities and their citizens can make to move in the direction of accessibility. Part of the solution lies in integrated land-use and transport planning, a strong focus on well designed public transport systems and promotion of mixed use developments and a better distribution of services. UN-Habitat happens to be headquartered in Nairobi which very much needs this paradigm shift, and it will be critical to have a real debate and discussion in policy and civic circles about these ideas. Nairobi itself is bubbling with creative local initiatives like Nai ni Who?, the Naipolitans,  Map Kibera Map Mathare and new urban thinking among cutting edge professionals that fit with the new report and its ideas.

These more democratic and progressive ideals of the accessible city fit nicely into the aspirations of Kenya’s new constitution. Sadly, they also go against the grain of over a hundred years of urban history. For example, good quality and affordable public transportation and safe streets for people who walk has never been a key part of Nairobi’s history. Nairobi began as a kind of “apartheid”, colonial “garden city” with leafy suburbs for wealthy settlers and colonial officials and poor housing or informal settlements for Africans. The colonial elite at the time were very concerned with roads for their cars to go into the city center for work and back to their exclusive homes at the end of the day. The poor were left to walk. Function in the city was as segregated as the races were supposed to be at the time with clear administrative, business, industrial and residential areas. These planning concepts still have a grip on the city with the central business district sadly devoid of residents that might keep it lively and safe at night. Instead, many residential areas including sprawling gated suburbs for the middle and upper classes are going up without basic services like shops which then forces people into unnecessary travel.

In Nairobi’s early history, municipal politics was dominated by settler and colonial officials who also were able to access land through political connections encouraging sprawl. Public transport within Nairobi was unsurprisingly not much of a focus for the car driving colonial political class, and this is why Africans developed their own systems in the form of the matatu transit system that continues to serve as the backbone of transport for the majority (although it is often too expensive for the very poor). No one can seriously imagine that today’s Nairobi would function without the matatu system and in fact, matatu drivers and owners, much maligned and rarely appreciated, do the bulk of planning for transportation at the micro-level in the city to this day, creatively redesigning routes to meet demand and figuring out where stops for passengers need to be. The city appears to be  happy to simply extract fees from matatus at terminals rather than figure out how to improve public transportation in the city.  The responsible ministries for transport simply build roads and projects as if the matatu system does not exist which explains why Thika Highway has inadequate provision for transit stops. Further, following old patterns, the ideal of a living in a suburb and driving into work in the city center still has a grip on today’s upper classes who then find themselves fighting for space on the road with matatus who carry the bulk of people around. Yet it is the matatu not the car carrying one person that is constantly banned from the city center.

So the key question will be whether with the devolved Nairobi City County, Nairobians will be able to dismantle the outdated and colonial planning system and reshape their city and its transport system to reflect their pressing needs and a more inclusive vision? Currently, the county is engaged in a new master planning process funded by the Japanese  International Cooperation Agency. A draft report was just released and a number of public meetings have taken place in accordance with the law but little information appears to be circulating, and it is unclear whether there is a strategy for community engagement. If this new planning process connects with the push for change from below and the integrated county development planning and budgeting process required by law, it could help move Nairobi in a better direction.

However, this requires the cooperation of the national government which currently has no national urban policy. The Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, for example, should not continue to push on with large-scale transportation projects that will reshape Nairobi dramatically with few knowing about the details and design and few to no public meetings in the city and the neighborhoods impacted. How many people, for example, know about the proposed elevated highway along Uhuru Highway that is bound to have a huge impact on the city? If these kind of opaque dynamics in planning for land-use and transportation do not change, then, following its history, Nairobians will not be the master of their own planning process and their ideas and needs will not be reflected in the projects and plans that get implemented. The UN-Habitat report is thus very timely and can be very helpful- but only if it is picked up and read and  triggers more needed public conversations and policy and planning changes.

Architecture exhibitions in Nairobi: an interview with Dr. Anna Rubbo

Three architecture exhibitions were on display at the Nairobi Alliance Francaise on Loita Street from 05 June until 07 July. The exhibition opening on 05 June also saw the launch of Dr Lydia Muthuma’s book, ‘Nairobi in Pictures (1899-2000)’  which was accompanied by photographs of 100 Nairobi buildings and a number of historic settlement photos.  The book and photographs, seek to establish a link between Nairobi’s buildings and its people by cataloging the city’s transformation, and identifying elements of culture that make the city what it is. The second exhibition, ‘Architecture=Durable’ showed 10 recent projects by 10 French architects over time.

The third exhibition was titled ‘People Building Better Cities: Participation and Inclusive Urbanization‘ (PBBC). PBBC is an exhibition that is traveling around the world highlighting participatory approaches to solving contemporary urban planning challenges.  To date it has been shown in Bangkok, Rio de Janeiro, Sydney, Johannesburg and Nairobi. Over the next few months it will be shown in India, China and the USA. The driving force behind the PBBC traveling exhibition is Dr. Anna Rubbo, (Senior Scholar at the Earth Institute Center for Sustainable Urban Development and Global Studio founder). We had a chance to speak with Dr. Rubbo directly, asking her a few questions about her experience of working on the exhibition.


Nairobi Planning Innovations: How was the exhibition organized in Nairobi and what was the highlight of the Nairobi PBBC exhibition? Continue reading

Nairobi’s Future: Will it change with Devolution? Not likely.


Published by Kwame Owino in Public Policy

The conventional wisdom in Kenya today is that the implementation of devolution as anticipated in the new constitution and brought to reality by the election of 47 county governors would provide stiff competition for Nairobi and most probably slow down the rate of the city’s growth. This view has been expressed largely in the press and represents the wishes of many, but is unlikely to happen for the following reasons: Continue reading

Pedestrian Safety: An interview with Dr. Khayesi

Transportation safety is a growing concern in cities around the world. Every year more than 270,000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world’s roads, while millions are left with injuries or permanent disabilities.

The World Health Organization (WHO), FIA Foundation, Global Road Safety Partnership and the World Bank recently co-published a manual titled “Pedestrian safety: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners”.  On 07 May 2013, Nairobi Planning Innovation interviewed Dr. Meleckidzedeck Khayesi, one of the lead authors of the manual, to get his perspective on the findings and intentions of the project.

Please note that Dr. Khayesi and Dr. Margie Paden from the WHO Department of Violence and Injury Prevention Disability will be hosting a live discussion about pedestrian safety on Twitter, Friday, 17 May from 17:00-19:00 Nairobi time. Join the talk or send questions as Tweets to @UNRSC using the hash tag #walksafechat. For more information contact  vesicj@who.int.


Nairobi Planning Innovations:: Please tell us a little bit about yourself and how you got engaged in issues of pedestrian safety as well as your role in producing this manual

Dr. Khayesi:  I am a Technical Officer in the Department of Violence and Injury at the World Health Organization (WHO). I studied at Kenyatta University earning a Bachelors degree in Education, a Master of Arts degree in Geography and a PhD in the field of Transportation Geography.  I have worked at the World Health Organization (WHO) for twelve years in the department of Violence and Injury.  Over the last seven or eight years, WHO has collaborated with the World Bank, FIA Foundation for the Automobile and Society and the Global Road Safety Partnership to produce a series of ‘how to’ manuals, which provide information on how to implement recommendations of the World report on traffic injury prevention. Included in this series are manuals on helmets (2006); drinking and driving (2007); speed management (2008); seat-belts and child restraints (2009); and data systems (2009).  The coalition’s most recent report, ‘Pedestrian safety: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners’ is another step in this effort to provide information on measures to implement to pedestrian safety around the world.

Nairobi Planning Innovations: What was the most surprising aspect or finding in producing this manual? Continue reading

Nairobi’s troubles date back to 1900

Nbi1900sPublished by John Kamau in The Business Daily

The City of Nairobi has had quacks, clowns, and thieves at the top — men and women who were simply short-sighted. With the election of Governor Evans Kidero, let us hope that finally we will have administrative peace.

The leadership question in this city is not a recent problem. It goes back to 1900 when Nairobi was set up as “tinville”, and in the wrong place!

When Nairobi was hardly eight years, the administrators were warned that they had done a mistake by allowing the building of a town in a treeless windy plain where residents were constantly baked by the African sun. Continue reading

Reflections on Nairobi’s Race for Governor


The Independent, Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) chairman Issack Hassan has recently announced that all returning elections officers are required to report results directly to the national tallying centre at the Bomas of Kenya in Nairobi (read more here).

The IEBC says that its delays are due to technical failure, but regardless, they leave voters eagerly awaiting results for the Presidential, Gubernatorial, Senatorial, Member of Parliament, and County Assembly races.  During this time, Nairobi resident Daisy Maritim reflects on the Nairobi Governor race:

Kenya: Reflections on the Nairobi Governor Race

…”It gets me thinking; do the candidates we have make the grade? Continue reading

Silicon Savannah presses ahead

Published on 13 February 2013 by Linet Kwamboka

konza city pavilion

Early in the New Year, the proposed ‘Silicon Savannah’ progressed from an ICT Park to a 10 billion USD technology city. This progress was marked by the formation of the Konza Technopolis Development Authority (KOTDA) and design plans for the cities landmark building – the Konza City Technology Pavilion.

Located in Machakos and Makueni counties, the development will sit on over 5,000 acres of land and according to a recent report; it will be constructed over a period of twenty years using a public-private financing model (http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke).

In my opinion, Konza City is the perfect idea; one that I wish had been started about a decade ago. Continue reading